摘要: [目的]滩坝砂体是发育在滨海或滨湖带的重要储集体，目前对于湖相滩坝砂体构型研究较多，而滨海与滨湖的沉积环境存在差异，滩坝沉积模式存在区别，对海相滩坝砂体构型研究有待深入。[方法]本文在对海相滩坝沉积进行大量文献调研基础上，从海相滩砂与坝砂沉积特征、滩坝形成水动力机制及构型影响因素、滩坝储层的构型模式及表征等多方面进行总结。[结果]结果表明，在以坝砂为主的滩坝沉积内部，坝砂的发育受近岸螺旋流、沿岸流、裂流、上冲流、海底回流等多种水动力控制，在多类型水动力作用下形成了线性砂坝、沿岸砂坝、砂坝咀、羽状砂坝、舌状坝、斜列坝等多种砂坝，不同类型砂坝的构型特征及成因存在差异。坝砂的沉积构型受多因素控制，岸线形态与波浪相互作用过程决定了波浪的作用方式，物源供给与相对海平面变化影响了坝体的发育与叠置模式，构造作用与沉积古地貌控制了坝体的分布。按照复合滩坝体、单一坝体及坝内增生体3个级次对滩坝沉积构型进行表征，初步建立了滩坝构型模式及表征方法。 [结论]应利用野外露头、现代沉积、地下密井网及沉积模拟等多方面建立构型原型模型，有助于丰富海相滩坝储层的沉积学理论，更有效指导海相滩坝油气藏的开发。
The progress of sedimentary architecture and characterization of marine sandy beach-bar: A review
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Abstract: [Objective] The beach-bar sand body is an important reservoir developed in the coastal or lakeshore area. Currently, there are more studies on the architecture of lakeshore beach-bar sand body, while there are differences in the depositional environments between the coastal and lakeshore, and there are differences in the sedimentation patterns of beach-bar, so the research on the architecture of beach-bar sand body needs to be deepened. [Methods] In this paper, based on a large amount of literature research on marine beach-bar deposits, the results are summarised in terms of the sedimentary characteristics and the hydrodynamic mechanism of marine beach-bar sand, the factors influencing the architecture, and the architecture pattern and characterization of it. [Results and discussion] The results show that the beach-bar deposits is dominated by sandbar, the development of sandbar is controlled by a variety of hydrodynamics such as nearshore spiral current, longshore current, rip current, swash current, and backward current in the seafloor, a variety types of sandbar have been formed under multiple types of hydrodynamic action, such as linear sandbar, coastal sandbar, sandbar spits, plume sandbar, tongue-like sandbar, oblique sandbar, etc. There are differences in the architecture characteristics and genesis of different types of sandbar. The sedimentary architecture of the sandbar is controlled by multiple factors. Shoreline morphology and wave interaction processes determine the mode of wave action, the supply of sediment sources and changes in relative sea level affect the development and stacking pattern of the sandbar, and tectonics and sedimentary palaeomorphology control the distribution of the sandbar. The sedimentary architecture of the beach-bar was characterized according to three levels: composite beach-bar, single bar and intra-bar accretionary body, and a preliminary beach-bar architecture model and characterization method were established. [Conclusions] Architecture prototypes should be modelled using various methods such as field outcrops, modern sedimentation, subsurface well datas and sediment simulation, which can help enrich the sedimentological theory of marine beach-bar reservoirs and more effectively guide the development of marine beach-bar oil and gas reservoirs.