侯家窑遗址位于泥河湾盆地西北部,自发现至今,历经40余年,但遗址年代和古人类生存环境问题仍悬而未决。本文基于地质地貌观测、电阻率测深、高程测量等工作,试图通过遗址区地层结构和古河流发育情况研究,阐释上述问题。结果如下:①伴随着泥河湾古湖的快速萎缩,在侯家窑遗址区发育了一条源自北部熊耳山、宽逾1 km的古河流。它形成于240 ka B.P.前,消亡于晚更新世初,发育历史贯穿了侯家窑古人类生存阶段的始终。②遗址古文化遗存不是埋藏在湖相泥河湾层中,而是埋藏于距今约224~161 ka的牛轭湖沉积层和壤化黏土层内,表明古人类在此倚河而居长达6万年。③遗址区面向东南的宽阔圈椅状地形,为古人类生存造就了相对温和舒适的地理环境;古河流既为古人类提供了水源,良好的流域生态环境也给古人类提供了富足的食物;熊耳山既是古河流源地,也是优质石料产地,古河流将石料搬运至遗址附近,石器制作便利。因此,在寒冷气候条件下生活的古人类,选择生境较好的侯家窑遗址区倚河而居势成必然。④遗址区古河流发育在易遭侵蚀的泥河湾湖相沉积层之上,河水泥沙含量高、浑浊,唯有遗址附近的牛轭湖区水流缓滞、清澈,而且植物繁茂,是各类动物优先猎食和饮水的地方。但牛轭湖独特的地貌特点,使动物们在急迫情况下难以逃脱,古人类此地围猎,远较他地成功率高。
Lying on the northwest of Nihewan Basin, Houjiayao Site (40°06'2.0"N, 113°58'40.7"E) was discovered 40 years ago. But there is still a controversy about the existence age and the living environment of Houjiayao ancient human. Based on the geological investigations, electrical resistivity sounding and altitude measuring, this paper attempts to do a research on stratigraphic structure and the development of the ancient river in Houjiayao Site, and to interpret the above problems. The results are as follows: ①An ancient river, which came from Xionger mountain in the north of the Site, developed in Houjiayao Site, and its width was more than 1 km. The ancient river formed before 240 ka B.P., and disappeared in the early stage of the late Pleistocene, and its developing history ran through the entire living stage of Houjiayao ancient human. ②The Site cultural relics were not buried in the lacustrine facies, but in the oxbow lake sediments of the ancient river and clay layer which lay on the oxbow lake sediments unconformably during the period of 224~161 ka B.P., and it indicates that the Houjiayao ancient people lived here for as long as 60 ka years. ③The Site looks like a wide armchair faced southeast, and it provided a relatively mild and comfortable environment for the ancient. The ancient river provided the ancient human with water, and the superior eco-environment also provided plentiful food for the ancient human. Xionger mountain was not only the source of the ancient river, but also the producing area for high quality stone materials. The old river carried stone materials to the Site, making it easier to make stone implements. Hence, the ancient human, who lived in cold weather, were more likely to choose better habitats such as the Houjiayao Site near the ancient river. ④The old river embedded in the lacustrine facies, so the content of silt was high, and it was feculent. And the water of the oxbow lake near Houjiayao Site was clear and slow. What's more, with plentiful plants, the oxbow lake was a preferred place for all kinds of animals to get food and water. But the geomorphologic features of this oxbow lake made it hard for animals to escape when faced with dangerous situations. So ancient human had a better chance to get food from hunting near the oxbow lake than in other areas.