摘要: 【目的】“碳酸盐（生产）工厂”研究强调生物群落对碳酸盐生产过程以及规模的调控和特异性影响，对深入认识碳酸盐岩成因和形成机制方面具有重要价值，是碳酸盐沉积学领域关注热点和重要方向。虽然该概念的正式提出已有二十多年历史，但如何从工厂角度解读地质历史时期，特别是深时特异性、大规模碳酸盐岩的发育过程和影响因素等方面缺乏系统性认识。【方法】以河南云梦山剖面寒武系崮山组为例，利用多尺度、网格定量化评价方法对微生物碳酸盐生产工厂的具体样式、内部结构、建造过程等方面进行了详细阐述。【结果】结果显示研究区微生物碳酸盐生产工厂以底栖微生物群落为主要建造者，形成样式包括：叠层石、凝块石、树枝石、均一石以及微生物诱导沉积构造（MISS）。伴生的颗粒类型包括鲕粒、球粒、生屑、竹叶状内碎屑和微生物岩角砾，主要分布于工厂建造格架间。微生物碳酸盐生产工厂发育具期次性，单期工厂发育规模较小（海底至水面高度不足1米）但空间延伸广，包括半球状、穹窿状、板状等宏观形态；其内部结构包括少量单独的建造样式，以及广泛发育的垂向复合形式。【结论】通过分析影响工厂发育的各类因素，局限潮坪环境下较高的营养水平对微生物碳酸盐生产工厂的繁盛可能起到了主要作用，而古丈期总体海侵背景造成适宜微生物碳酸盐生产工厂发育的环境消失，导致工厂最终关闭。相关工作的开展提供了一个与现代澳大利亚Hamelin Pool微生物碳酸盐生产工厂非常相似的古代实例，对认识寒武纪碳酸盐生产工厂类型、特征和演化规律方面具有较好的参考价值。
Composition, Characteristics, and Sedimentological Significance of the Microbial Carbonate Factory in Deep Time: A Case Study from the Yunmengshan Section (Henan Province, China)
- Received Date:
- Available Online:
Abstract: [Objective] The study of "Carbonate Factory" emphasizes the specific effects of biological communities on the carbonate production process and scale moderation, which contributes significantly to our understanding of large-scale carbonate sedimentation. Although the concept and application of the "Carbonate Factory" have gained attention in the field of carbonate sedimentology, there is still a lack of systematic understanding of how to interpret the origin, developmental processes, and influencing factors of specific types of carbonate sedimentation in geological history, particularly in deep time. [Methods] This study examines the Gushan Formation of the Cambrian Miaolingian in the Yunmengshan area (Henan Province) as an example of a microbial carbonate factory. A multi-scale grid-based quantitative evaluation method is used to describe the specific form, internal structure, and construction process of the carbonate factory. [Results and Discussions] Our results show that benthic microbial communities were the primary builders of the microbial carbonate factory in the study area. They formed unique structures, including the stromatolite, thrombolite, leiolite, and microbial-induced sedimentary structure (MISS). Various particle types, including ooids, flat pebbles, and microbialite breccias, were preserved within the microbial buildups. The development of the microbial carbonate factories occurred episodically during the Guzhangian Age (Miaolingian) and had relatively small scales (height of <1 m); however, they extended widely in space and exhibited different macroscopic shapes such as subspherical, domical, and tabular. The interior structures of the microbial carbonate factories consisted of individual forming styles as well as vertical combinations of composite forms. [Conclusions] By analyzing various factors influencing the development of the factories, we found that higher nutrient levels may have played a crucial role in the development of microbial carbonate factories in the tide-flat environment. Additionally, the flooding event during the Guzhangian Age led to the eventual closure of the factories. This study provides an ancient example similar to the modern Hamelin Pool microbial carbonate factory in Australia, which has good reference value for understanding the types, characteristics, and evolutionary patterns of carbonate factories in the Cambrian period.